Blood in the urine, darkening of the urine color is one of the conditions that cause anxiety in individuals.
This condition, which is called hematuria in medical terminology, is divided into two groups. Microscopic hematuria is bleeding that is invisible to the naked eye and can be detected by laboratory tests (urine analysis).
Macroscopic hematuria (gross hematuria) describes bleeding that patients can see with the naked eye. Although macroscopic or microscopic bleeding is not directly related to the severity of the pathology, macroscopic hematuria is more likely to develop as a result of a significant pathological problem.
When such a patient is admitted, the patient's history and physical examination findings are important for us urologists. For example, in young individuals, burning during urination for a day or two and bleeding in the urine are often the harbingers of urinary tract infection.
Apart from this, bleeding is insignificant in patients with severe side pain, which we call renal colic, with nausea and vomiting and in whom we think of stones in the urinary system, and these bleedings are not always at a life-threatening level. Again, bleeding in the urine can be attributed to the side effect of the drug, after urological cancers are excluded in patients who use blood thinners, mostly due to heart or neurological diseases.
As a result, although seeing blood in the urine is a guide especially for the investigation of urological cancer, it can also be accompanied by simple diseases (urinary tract infection, cystitis, vaginitis) to a large extent. It may be unnecessary to panic without visiting your doctor.
However, in case of bleeding in the urine even once, a urologist should be consulted and tests (urinalysis, PSA, creatinine, hemogram, etc.) and imaging (ultrasonography, tomography, cystoscopy) should be performed according to risk groups.
Individuals with male gender, advanced age, smoking, occupational history (chemical exposure),radiotherapy history, cancer history, chronic irritation, recurrence of bleeding, and family history are in the risk group, and in such patients, imaging with cystoscopy should also be performed. Thanks to fiber optic magnifiers and cameras, even invisible tumoral structures in the urethra (urinary tract) and bladder are detected.
As we can encounter simple and benign diseases, blood in the urine is a symptom that cannot be neglected when early diagnosis is taken into account in severe cancer cases. When you encounter this situation, we recommend that you consult a urologist.
I wish you healthy days.